Interesting Tab

INTERESTING  - DECEMBER




12/14/17     
Interesting/Odd Facts About the Human Body
The normal adult human body has 206 bones, but infants have more bones than adults. The underdeveloped skull of a newborn baby has six gaps or "holes" in it, the largest of which is located in the middle of the top of the head. By the age of two, the skull bones have grown sufficiently to close those "soft spots" – thus reducing the number of bones in the skull.

Also the last five vertebrae at the lower end of a child's backbone gradually join to form a single bony structure, the sacrum.

In addition, the coccyx or tailbone, located below the sacrum at the very end of the backbone, consists of four tiny bones in some people but five in others.

Did you know that you are taller in the morning than you are at night? This is because you have soft pads (called disks) between the bones of your spine. They expand slightly overnight, making you taller.

Your entire body slows down its growth rate when you get older. Only your ears keep growing.

The human skin consists of four layers. The top, or fourth layer, the stratum corneum, is constantly being shed from the body. No sooner do the cells in this top layer slough off into clothing or into the air then they are replaced by cells from the lower layers beneath. It takes about four weeks for a single cell to rise from the lowest or first layer to the top layer. Our entire skin, therefore is replaced every twenty-eight days.

You have about 5 million hairs on your body. Many of them are so fine, you can hardly see them. They grow at an average of half an inch per month, but a little faster when the weather is warm.


12/13/17   
THE SUN
Why Is Its Surface so Stormy?
The core of the Sun isn't the only place where interesting things are going on. Weird things are happening on the solar surface as well.

The Sun has spots that appear and disappear at random, clouds that are made of hot glowing gases (not cool, refreshing rain), and sudden explosions that release tremendous amounts of energy into space. All these features are caused by the same thing – a fluid, twisting magnetic field.

Sunspots Appear and Disappear
There aren't always sunspots on the sun. Sometimes there are many, sometimes there are few, and sometimes there are none at all.

The periods of time without sunspots on the surface and little, if any, solar activity are what astronomers call solar minimum.

During the 5.5 years following a solar minimum, the number of sunspots gradually increases until the sun reaches what is known as a solar maximum – when there are many sunspots.

Then, over the next 5.5 years, the sunspot activity gradually decreases until the sun has returned to a solar minimum.

This eleven year period, from solar minimum to solar maximum and back, is known as the sunspot cycle.


12/11/17    
Some Animal Facts
The mucus trail that a snail produces is so effective that a snail can travel across the edge of the razor without getting cut.

The fastest speed recorded for a garden snail was 0.0313 miles (0.05km) per hour.

Earthworms are made up of many segments called annuli. The annuli are covered in tiny hairs that grip the soil, allowing the worm to move as it contracts its muscles.

A chameleon's body is only half the length of its tongue.

The capybara is an Amazon water hog that looks like a guinea pig, except that it weighs more than 100 pounds (45 kg). It is the world's largest rodent.

A healthy mole can tunnel through 300 feet (90 m) of earth in one day.


12/7/17   
Just Stuff  Q & A
Q: Whose home provides the grounds for the Arlington National Cemetery?
A: Robert E. Lee. Arlington House was the home of Robert E. Lee for thirty years until Virginia joined the Confederacy and federal troops occupied the estate. During the Civil War, the grounds were appropriated for a military cemetery after Brigadier General Montgomery C. Meigs ordered that dead Union soldiers be buried in Mrs. Lee's rose garden. Many historians believe that Miegs directive was an act of revenge to prevent Lee from ever returning home.

Q: What is an "October Surprise"?
A: An extraordinary news event timed to influence the outcome of the United States presidential election in November. Notable October surprises include Lyndon Johnson's announcement of the cessation of North Vietnam bombing in 1968 and Henry Kissinger's statement about eminent peace in Vietnam in 1972. The "October Surprise conspiracy" alludes to reports that Ronald Reagan made an informal deal with Iranian officials to prevent the release of American hostages shortly before the 1980 election.

Q: What condition did Lizzie Borden, Emily Dickenson and Henry VIII share?
A: They were all redheads.

Q: What famous baby doctor participated in the Olympics before becoming a famous author?
A: Benjamin Spock was a member of the 1924 USA Olympic rowing team. He went on to be the author of the best seller Baby and Childcare, which has been translated into 39 languages and has sold more than 50 million copies.

Q: Which bird is the largest bird?
A: The ostrich, which can grow up to nine feet tall and weigh more than 350 pounds. This flightless species is also the fastest running bird; it can run at speeds greater than 40 miles per hour.


12/6/17        
Odd Stuff In History
Men used to go to a barbershop for more than just a haircut. Each shop had a red-and-white striped pole outside. This was because barbers used to “bleed” people. They cut a person's arm and let it bleed. This was thought to cure some illnesses. Barbers wrapped the used bandages around the pole and left them outside as an advertisement of their services.

Vesuvius, 70 CE. That historic explosion buried all of Pompeii under a hot, suffocating blanket of ash and pumice 32 feet deep and claimed the lives of more than 20,000 inhabitants. So quickly did the disaster take place that only a few had time to escape. Most victims died suddenly in their homes and shops or as they fled toward the safety of the nearby bay.
            As the deadly sediment cooled, it hardened around its victims, forming natural and perfect molds of their bodies. Over the centuries, these bodies gradually turned into dust, but the hard molds that outlined the once-living contours remained intact.
            Almost 2,000 years later, workmen digging carefully down through the hard ash to unearth the ancient city would hear their tools tap on a hollow place. This sound told them that the body mold of a Pompeiian and killed by Vesuvius lay beneath.
            Upon this discovery, a hole would be carefully bored into the top of the "mold," and through this opening would be poured enough plaster of Paris to fill the empty space within. When the plaster hardened, the ancient covering would be broken away, revealing an absolutely lifelike case of one of the Vesuvius’s long dead victims.

Tourists who visit Warsaw are actually looking at a city that has been almost entirely rebuilt. The rebuilding was done using the original designs going back, in some cases, hundreds of years. During World War II, 90% of Warsaw was destroyed, and its population fell from 1,300,000 in 1939 to 162,000 in 1944.

12/4/17            
Odd Stuff In History
In Alaska, when it was still a Russian possession, there was a tribe of Indians called the Tlingit. They carved totem poles. When Abraham Lincoln was president of the United States, they carved a huge wooden likeness of him. It can be seen now in a museum in Juneau.

A collection that begins as a hobby can become quite important. Thomas Jefferson was a great collector of books. His collection was so fine that it eventually became the nucleus of the Library of Congress after the original holdings of the library were destroyed by fire in 1814. Incidentally, there are now more than 29 million books in the Library of Congress.

A Washington museum in England? Yes. It's Sulgrave Manor in Northamptonshire. It was George Washington's family home, and it has been restored and refurbished and made into a museum.

Because all modern presidents were born citizens of the United States, it is widely assumed that all presidents were natural born citizens. Actually, the first seven presidents were not born United States citizens, but British subjects. When these presidents were born, to put it simply, there was no such thing as the United States. Martin Van Buren (1837 – 41), the eighth president, was the first United States born president.

The United States Constitution requires that "No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of president." Once the Constitution was ratified, unless they declined citizenship (which many Loyalists did), all former British subjects automatically became citizens of the United States. The first seven presidents were thus granted citizenship and became eligible for the office.

Alexander the Great, who lived about 2,300 years ago, ordered all his soldiers to shave their heads and faces. This prevented an enemy from grabbing a soldier by the hair to cut his head off.


INTERESTING  - NOVEMBER

11/30/17      
Stars – Old Sun-like Stars – How They End
Old stars like our Sun will not quietly fade away like old red dwarf stars.
            Instead, when the sun-like stars uses up the hydrogen in its core, it will become a red giant, create a planetary nebula, and end up as a white dwarf – and that's just the brief version of its life ending contortions.
            Here is a more detailed look at what an old sun-like star goes through when it dies.

THE CORE COLLAPSES. . .
The fun begins when a sun-like star runs out of fuel. After all the hydrogen in the star's core has been converted to helium, there is nothing left to burn. So the reactions stop.
            Note: There are still tremendous amounts of hydrogen in the star; it's just not in the core, so it's not hot enough to undergo nuclear reactions.
            Without nuclear reactions exploding outward, the gravity pushing inward takes over, causing the star to collapse in on itself.
            As it collapses, the pressure and temperature in the area surrounding the core increase enough to trigger a new round of nuclear reactions. So now what surrounds the collapsing core is a layer of hot, "burning" hydrogen.
            Note: There isn't enough mass in a red dwarf to trigger this round of reactions, which is why a red dwarf will simply fade to black.
            From here, things get a little complicated.

SWELLS TO FORM A RED GIANT. . .
With the heat from the collapsing core and the surrounding layer of burning hydrogen, the star is now hotter than ever. To get rid of some of its extra heat, the surface of the sun-like star begins to swell.
            In other words, while its core is collapsing, its surface is swelling. When it finally stops swelling, the surface of the star would reach almost to the orbit of Earth.
            Because the star's surface is spread out over a much larger area, it's easier for heat to escape. The surface cools down and turns red. It has become a red giant.
            During this red giant phase, the new layer of nuclear reactions is busy converting hydrogen into helium. The newly formed helium falls inward toward the collapsing core.
            As more mass is added to the helium core, the pressure and temperature increase as well. Finally, the pressure and temperature are high enough that helium atoms are forced to fuse together, forming carbon.
            At this point, helium burning begins.

SHRINKS TO REGULAR STAR SIZE. . .
When the helium nuclear reactions start pushing outward from the core, this force counteracts the gravity pushing inward, and the core stopped its collapse.
            As a result, the star actually starts to cool. It's hard to imagine a place that is cooler after nuclear reactions begin, but it's true here.
            As it cools, the surface of the star begins to shrink. By the time gravity and pressure reach a balance, the star is no longer a red giant. In fact, it has shrunk back almost to its original size. The star will continue in this phase until all the helium in the core has been converted to carbon. 

RED GIANT NUMBER TWO. . .
When the core runs out of helium, the nuclear reactions stop. Once again, gravity takes over and the core collapses. As it heats up, a new layer of hydrogen begins to burn in a layer surrounding the collapsing core.
            And once again, as the star burned hotter and hotter, its surface begins to swell in an effort to cool off. And you guessed it. The star once again becomes a red giant.

A PLANETARY NEBULA IS FORMED. . .
The second red giant phase is much more unstable than the first.
            With a denser core (one that is now made up of solid carbon), it is collapsing much faster and temperatures are much hotter than they have ever been. As a result, the star is emitting tremendous amounts of energy, sometimes in massive bursts.
            These bursts cause the star to eject its outer atmosphere into space. It travels away from the star as an ever-expanding bubble of gas and dust.
            From Earth, this bubble (what astronomers call a planetary nebula) appears as a ring moving away from a central star.

SHRINKS TO A WHITE DWARF. . .
With a core of solid carbon and an atmosphere that has been blown away, the sun like star has entered its final phase.
            As the core continues to collapse, its temperature and pressure continue to rise. This time, however, they will not be able to rise high enough to trigger another round of nuclear reactions.
            Eventually, the collapse slows down. At some point, gravity won't be able to collapse the core any further. The former sun-like star will end up as a small sphere about the size of Earth. It is now a white dwarf.
            With no nuclear reactions in its core, the white dwarf is classified as a dead star. It is, however, still very hot and very bright. It will take thousands, sometimes millions of years for the white dwarf to cool off and fade to black.


11/29/17     
A Little of This – A Little of That
If you looked out your train window in Llanfair, Wales, you would see a strange sign. It is actually one long sign above the platform, and it has this on it: LLANFAIRPWLLGWYNGYLLGOGERYCHWYRNDROBWLLLLANTYSILIOGOGOGOCH
It identifies the place in the Welsh, and means: "St. Mary's church in the hollow of the white hazel near a rapid whirlpool and the church of St. Tysilio of the red cave."

It's so hot in India that a great deal of the trade and business in the villages is done out in the open. Even barbers give haircuts right out in the street.

Salt, at one time, was so precious a commodity that explorers set out in search of it, wars were fought over it, and some lucky people were paid for their labor in salt. That, by the way, is how we got the word salary.
            So a salt mine was a treasure house. And in Hallein,  in the Salzburg province of Austria, there are mountains where they have been mining for salt for more than 2,000 years. Today, the equipment is modern, but they are still going down into those mines for the same product – salt.


11/27/17      
About Space – The Moon
The moon's gravity is about 1/6 of Earth's. If you weigh 170 pounds (77 kg) on Earth, you would weigh 28.3 pounds (12.8 kg) on the moon.

The moon is approximately 234,000 miles (376,600 km) from Earth.

The moon is moving away from Earth at a little more than an inch (3 cm) per year.

During the six lunar missions from 1969 to 1972, twelve humans have walked on the moon, returning with over 840 pounds (381 kg) of lunar rocks.

The highest ocean tides – caused by the pull of lunar gravity – are called spring tides. When the tides are at their lowest, they’re neap tides.


11/24/17  
Just Stuff  Q & A
Q: Who starred in the film Son of Captain Blood?
A: Sean Flynn starred in the 1962 sequel to his father's breakthrough film. After making several cinematic swashbucklers, the younger Flynn became a war correspondent. In 1970, he disappeared while covering the fighting in Cambodia.

Q: Which of these people graduated from elementary school: Andrew Carnegie; Thomas Edison; John Philip Sousa; Cher?
A: Of this illustrious quartet, only high school dropout Cher completed elementary school.

Q: Patty Hearst, Lily Tomlin and Carly Simon all participated in what high school activity?
A: They were cheerleaders.

Q: What condition afflicted Homer, Jorge Luis Borges and Joseph Pulitzer?
A: They were all blind.

Q: What condition did Jack the Ripper, Leonardo da Vinci and Sandy Koufax share?
A: They were all left-handed.


11/22/17  
Interesting Customs
People all over the world have different ways of identifying themselves. Members of the Luo tribe in Kenya take out six lower teeth at the front of their mouth.

When the king or queen of England is to be present in the House of Lords, peers never show up with gloves on. This is a way of making certain that they will carry no hidden weapons. It's a precaution that goes back to the days when gloves were much larger – and plots against the monarch rather frequent.

If you've ever been in a house where they pointed out "the drawing room" – you know it's not a room where drawing or painting is done.
            It seems that during the 16th century in England, it became the custom for ladies and gentlemen to separate after dinner. The men remained in the dining room to drink and talk. The ladies went to a special room set aside for their gossip and talk.
            What the ladies did was withdraw – and the room they went to came to be known as the withdrawing room. In time, this was shortened to the drawing room, which is still called today.

Don't step on a cat’s tail – if you're an unmarried male. In certain parts of France people believe that a bachelor who does so won't find any woman willing to marry him for the next 12 months.


11/20/17
Stuff About Inventions
During battles, the ancient Chinese used specially designed "warrior kites" to drop flaming pitch over enemy lines.

The Italian explorer Marco Polo brought porcelain to Europe in the 14th century.

A fine clay called kaolin was utilized to make porcelain in China around A.D. 1280. A cruder form of porcelain, called seladon, had been developed 200 years earlier.

In ancient Rome, wooden cranes were often used to hoist heavy materials. From wall paintings that survive, modern engineers can see details of their construction, and that some cranes were powered by as many as 50 men walking on large treadmills.

Although Leonardo da Vinci sketched a bicycle design in one of his notebooks, the Frenchman Edouard De Sivrac built the first bicycle-type vehicle in 1690.

The modern bicycle looks almost exactly the same as a bicycle from around 1900.



11/16/17     
A Star’s Life - Early childhood thru old age.
Kindergarten is where you can find a group of young children who are all about the same age.
            In the sky, the star equivalent of kindergarten is known as an open cluster or galactic cluster.
            Within an open cluster, you will see a beautiful group of young stars, all of which formed at about the same time within the same diffuse nebula.
            Their bright light sometimes reflects off the leftover dust from their birth nebula, giving them a kind of halo. The Pleiades, or Seven Sisters, is a great example of an open cluster.
            Several of the stars within the cluster will remain together in double, triple, or other multiple Star combinations. But the group as a whole will gradually drift apart. After all kindergarten can't last forever. Someday we have to grow up.
            Human beings go through middle age – a time when life can be kind of predictable. Stars aren’t people, of course. But all stars – small,  medium, and large – go through a similar stage of life.
            During the stellar version of middle-age, a star is busy converting the hydrogen in its core into helium. It burns steadily, with little change in its size or energy output.
            Astronomers call this time a stars hydrogen burning phase. It will remain in this phase for most of his life – which could be millions of years (for blue giants), billions of years (for sun-like stars), or trillions of years (for red dwarfs).
            In the sky, about 90% of all the stars are in this: phase of their lives.
            It's only when a star begins to run out of fuel that things get interesting (at least for the sun-like and blue giant stars.) What happens to the red dwarf stars?
            Older red dwarfs are the oldest and least active of all the stars.
            These small, ancient stars have been slowly burning hydrogen for billions of years, and they will continue to burn for many more.
            Why do red dwarfs burn for so long?
            Because of their low mass, their gravity is less than that of any other star. With less gravity pushing on it, the core of the red dwarf isn't under as much pressure. It's temperature and pressure are high enough to keep the nuclear reactions going, but at the slowest pace possible
            When a red dwarf eventually runs out of fuel (when all the hydrogen in the core has been converted to helium), the nuclear reactions will simply stop. Without explosions pushing outward from the center, the gravity pushing inward will cause the star to collapse in on itself.
            A now much smaller dead star will cool off and fade to black – and uneventful end to a quiet, slow burning star.


11/15/17   
More Stuff
He is called Gosiathus goliathus, which is like saying "giant giant." But the name fits him well, since this monster beetle from Africa is the biggest bug in the world. Stretched out, he measures 6 inches or more in length and has a wingspan of 8 inches.
            The only living Goliath beetle ever known to be in the United States was seen several years ago at New York's Museum of Natural History.
            Affectionately called Buster the Bug by an admiring staff, the Goliath had been secretly left one Christmas Eve on the museum's doorstep. He was found inside a covered coffee can lined with grass – obviously an effort made to protect him from the wintry blasts.
            Buster was installed in a fine, temperature-controlled glass house and fed a lush diet of ripe melons, mangoes and tomatoes. He gained weight (almost half an ounce) and seemed happy to do nothing else but loll around as the museum's star attraction.
            Only one sticky little incident marred the idyll of this coleopteron (the scientific name for beetles). That was when Busters fame spread to the immigration department. The department, which takes a very dim view of any insect being imported into United States, promptly declared Buster and undesirable alien and ordered his demise. But Dr. John C. Pallister, chief entomologist at the museum, would have none of that, and went to bat for his rare bug.
            It is very hard for anyone to win an argument with a scientist. So in the end Buster was allowed to stay at the museum. He was given a special "passport," and Dr. Pallister promised that "adequate safeguard measures would be employed to prevent escape."

Waves wear away the coasts all the time. At Martha's Vineyard in Massachusetts, the cliffs are being worn away at a rate of about 5 feet a year. The lighthouse there has been moved inland three times.

Hunters in the Western world pride themselves on the efficiency of their weapons, which are usually guns, and on their own ability to fire those guns accurately.
            In Malaya, a group of tribal huntsman, the Sakai, have a much more delicate – but equally accurate – weapon: the blow pipe. They take along this long, hollow rod when they roam the jungles in search of fruit and animals.
            When they sight a creature in a treetop, they blow into the barrel, and a thin dart flies out and kills the prey. To ensure its effectiveness, the tip of the dart is dipped in a poisonous substance before it is inserted into the blow pipe.


11/13/17   
Strange Stuff About Ordinary Things
The element of fluorine is one of the most corrosive of all elements. Combined with lead and warmed, it is a milky white liquid, called diamond ink, that is used to etch glass.

The smallest object ever weighed was a 22 femtogram graphite speck. It was placed on the end of a microscopic tube that was then electrified. The frequency of oscillation of the tube with the speck attached allowed the scientists to precisely determine the speck’s mass.

The 1938 edition of the periodic table of elements lists “virginium” as an element. The element was named for the state of Virginia and had the symbol Va. The element was later renamed francium.

Using relatively simple techniques found in in classified literature, it is possible for almost anyone to make a 1-kiloton bomb as powerful as the one that devastated Nagasaki in World War II. Thankfully, obtaining the 2.2 – 6.6 pounds (1 – 3 kg) of pure plutonium necessary for the nuclear reaction is much more challenging.

According to the U.S. Natural Resources Defense Council, the can containing a soft drink can hold enough plutonium to make up to six bombs, capable of destroying 40 blocks.


11/9/17     
Just Stuff  Q & A
Q: In the 1959 film Darby O’Gill and the Little People, who played Michael McBode, the replacement for aging groundsman Darby O’Gill at Lord Fitzpatrick's summerhouse?
A: Sean Connery.

Q: What was Pierce Brosnon’s first credited film role?
A: Brosnon portrayed the "first Irishman" in the critically acclaimed 1980 film, Long Good Friday which starred Bob Hoskins. His first actual appearance on film was an uncredited role the same year in The Mirror Cracked.

Q: Which movie star in the 1940s successfully sued Warner Bros. studios over the studio contract system?
A: Olivia De Havilland won the suit, and the "De Havilland Law” effectively limited studio contracts to seven years and made suspending actors difficult, which had been commonplace before the decision.

Q: In 1941 which actress beat out her sister for the Oscar for best actress?
A: Joan Fontaine won the 1941 Oscar for Suspicion, beating her sister Olivia De Havilland, who had been nominated for Hold Back the Dawn.

Q: In 1935 Douglas Fairbanks Jr. was replaced in a movie role because of illness. As a result of the film, his replacement became Fairbanks's biggest box office rival. Name the film and the rival newcomer.
A: The movie was Captain Blood; it established young Errol Flynn as an action star. It was also the first of eight films in which Flynn would team with the alluring Olivia De Havilland.


11/8/17     
Interesting and Odd Facts About Nature
The "midnight sun" creates really unusual conditions in lands that lie north of the Arctic Circle. In northern Finland, for example, in midsummer, there is constant daylight 24 hours a day – for 73 consecutive days.

Any two places on opposite sides of the earth, situated so that a straight line from one to the other passes through the middle of the earth, are called the antipodes of each other.
            Many people believe that China is the antipode of the United States. Thus, if a deep enough hole were dug in the United States and passed through the midpoint of the earth, the hole would come up somewhere in China. This is simply not the case. Both China and the United States are, in fact, in the northern hemisphere. The true antipode of the United States is an area of the Indian Ocean west of Australia and east of South Africa.

How many times can you hear an echo? It depends on where you make the sound. In Killarney, Ireland, there is a cave called the Eagles Nest. Folks will tell you that if you sound a bugle note there, you'll hear repeated at least 100 times.

Stones can't move by themselves, but the natives of a town called Reynoldston, in Wales, think otherwise. There is a huge prehistoric pillar there called Arthur's Stone. They say that at night it goes down to the sea to quench its thirst.


11/6/17         
About Mother Nature
The oldest fossils of living organisms are about 3.5 billion years old.

Fossils can take many forms. Plant or animal parts preserved in shale or glacial ice are called original remains because a portion of the original organism exists.
A carbonized fossil is one where the organism itself has vanished, but a perfect cast of it exists in mud or shale. Many delicate plant fossils take this form.

A mineralized fossil refers to animal or plant matter where the soft tissue has been replaced by minerals – frequently calcite, quartz, or pyrite. Carried by groundwater, the minerals seep into the soft tissue, eventually replacing it.

One of the most abundant mineralized fossil found in the United States is the trilobite– a hard shelled, boneless marine animal that lived more than 500 million years ago, but is now extinct.

Trilobites roamed the sea floor and coral reefs in search of food.


11/2/17         
Stars – A star is born. The Stellar Nursery.
All stars, no matter how big or small, begin their lives in the same place, a diffuse nebula.
            While this Star birthplace has a pretty fancy name, it is really just a huge cloud of hydrogen atoms with a little helium and interstellar dust thrown in for good measure. (The Orion Nebula is one of the brightest diffuse nebulae in the sky.)
            The hydrogen, helium, and dust are not evenly distributed throughout the nebula. Instead, like brownie batter that didn't get mixed up very well, there were clumps of atoms and dust here and there, in between large empty spaces.
            These clumps are protostars – stars in the making. Since a protostar is a concentration of many atoms and dust specks, it's combined gravity is much stronger than the gravity of a single atom. So if a lone atom happens to drift by, the stronger gravity of the protostar tugs on it, pulling it in.
            With its new addition, the gravity of the protostar increases, and its effects can therefore be felt farther away. The protostar continues to attract atoms and dust from farther and farther away, with its gravity increasing all the time as it pulls more matter into it.
            In addition, the stronger gravity forces atoms already within the protostar to crowd closer together. This causes the temperature and pressure in the center of the protostar to soar.
            After a time, the pressure is great enough and the temperature is high enough that hydrogen atoms in the core are forced to fuse together, causing nuclear reactions to begin.
            At this point, a star is born. It quickly reaches a balance between the nuclear explosions pushing outward and the gravity pushing inward, and a nice round star begins to shine.
            If a protostar forms in a region of the diffuse nebula where there is a large concentration of single atoms, this process happens fairly quickly. The result is a high-mass, blue giant star.
            If a protostar forms where there are few atoms or little dust, it takes much longer to pull together enough matter. The result is a low mass, red dwarf star.
            As for sun-like stars, you guessed it: they formed in a region that isn't too crowded or too empty.
            Stars will continue to form in this region until they have used up most of the free-floating atoms and dust specks within the diffuse nebula. At this point, the region that used to hold a giant cloud of gas and dust will be ablaze with newly formed stars.
            Although the protostar's haven't moved, the diffuse nebula where they were formed has changed and has now become an open (or galactic) cluster. (Think of it as a type of stellar kindergarten.)



11/1/17      
Just Stuff
What are the safest years in the life of a person in the United States? The chances of surviving from one year to the next are greatest at the ages of 9, 10, and 11. The mortality rate is the lowest during these years.

The master-slave manipulator has nothing to do with masters or slaves. It is a pair of artificial hands, with forearms, wrists, fingers, and thumbs, used by research workers who deal with radioactive substances. The research worker, safe behind a window of lead glass, can make the master-slave manipulator do anything he could possibly do with his own hands.

The nuraghi are some of the strangest monuments in the world. Built by people who invaded the island of Sardinia about 5000 years ago, nuraghi are made of rough, unhewn stones piled up to form a round tower with walls that slope inward. There were once about 8,000 of these towers, and there are now about 6,500 left. And nobody is sure why they were ever built in the first place.

It's amusing, most people who see it smile, and it's considered practically a trademark of the city. It's the Manneken-Piss, the statue of a little boy "urinating" into the fountain near the Grand Palace in Brussels, Belgium.
            But the Belgians don't just look at the Manneken. Whenever there is some special occasion that calls for it, they dress the popular little statue in a costume. He is said to have a very large wardrobe that includes everything from Boy Scout uniforms to native dress from many parts of the globe.



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